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Capsicum chinense, commonly known as the "bonnet pepper" is a species of chili pepper native to the Americas. C. chinense varieties are well known for their exceptional heat and unique flavors. The hottest peppers in the world are members of this species, with Scoville Heat Unit scores of over 1.5 million. Some taxonomists consider them to be part of the species C. annuum, and they are a member of the C. annuum complex. C. annuumand C. chinense pepper plants can generally be identified by the number of flowers or fruit per node, however—one for C. annuum and two to five for C. chinense, though this method is not always correct. The two species can also hybridize and generate inter-specific hybrids. It is believed that C. frutescens is the ancestor to the C. chinense species.

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